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Coaching Tools: Process Evaluation Scale

Process Evaluation Scale (PES) is an assessment tool used by coaches to analyze the goal accomplishment of their clients. Coaches can use PES to help their clients reach their goals. A coach can ask a client to rate their current state of achievement and aim for fulfillment on a scale of 1 to 10, 10 being the highest. If your client has already made a lot of progress on their goals, then your client will have a higher rating on the scale.

Coaching Tools: Process Evaluation Scale Process Evaluation Scale

On the other hand, if your client is having difficulty achieving their goals, then your client will have a lower rating on the scale. Your client should be honest with you when you ask him/her to complete PES. You should also help your client to evaluate himself/herself on a regular basis.

This scale was designed to measure the process evaluation of coaching programs. We are going to talk about coaching tools, why they are important for coaches, and how to use them.

In Brief : How to use the Process Evaluation Scale in coaching?
  • Introduction – The evaluation of coaching in health professions emphasizes the importance of professional skills, utilizing various methods such as demonstrations, simulations, and standardized patients
  • Method – The current research was planned as both a cross-sectional and methodological study.
  • Step 1: Item Generation And Expert Opinions – Generated a 52-item pool for coaching evaluation, refined to a 30-item preliminary scale through expert opinions.
  • Step 2: Pilot Testing – Pilot tested the scale with 30 nursing students, confirming its validity and applicability without significant modifications.
  • Step 3: Scale Administration – Administered the scale to second and third-year nursing students, obtaining a sample size exceeding ten times the item count with ethical approval.
  • Step 4: Psychometric Analyses – Conducted psychometric analyses, including exploratory factor analysis for validity and Cronbach alpha analysis for reliability, using SPSS for statistical analysis.
  • Results – Validity and reliability data were acquired for the 30-item Coaching Process Evaluation Scale, developed based on expert opinions and pilot test results.
  • Step 1: Eigenvalue Scree Plot Results – Utilized eigenvalue analysis and principal components with varimax rotation to decide on 4 factors for the Coaching Process Evaluation Scale, emphasizing the need for a comprehensive factor choice.
  • Step 2: Exploratory Factor Analysis – Validated the 30-item scale through exploratory factor analysis, maintaining all items with factor loadings above.60, resulting in a 4-factor structure.
  • Step 3: Principal Components Analysis With Varimax Rotation – Confirmed factor validity through principal components analysis, naming factors and finalizing a 4-subscale evaluation.
  • Step 4: Naming Factors – Named factors based on content, creating subscales such as “Utilization of the coaching process” and “Observed coaching skills.”
  • Step 5: Reliability Analysis – Demonstrated high reliability through Cronbach alpha analysis, with coefficients of 0.96 for the total scale and.94, .94, .94, and.80 for individual factors.
  • Step 6: Item Total Correlation Analysis – Standardized subscale scores from 0 to 100, facilitating meaningful comparisons of student satisfaction based on statistical analyses of the Coaching Process Evaluation Scale.

What is the Process Evaluation Scale coaching tool?

The Process Evaluation Scale is a very useful tool that coaches and therapists can use to evaluate their clients’ progress. This tool helps coaches and therapists to know the progress of their clients. It is based on a scale of 1 to 10, with 10 being the highest. This tool helps measure how successfully a person achieves his goals. It is important to note that a higher score does not necessarily mean that the client has reached the highest possible level of success. A high score may indicate that the client is enjoying the goal achievement benefits.

A score of 10 means that the person has achieved the highest possible level of success. This score indicates that the client has reached their goal. The client’s performance should be constantly evaluated.

What is the purpose of a Process Evaluation Scale?

The Process Evaluation Scale (PES) is a tool used to measure the quality of the coaching process students experience while learning a new skill. The researchers developed it to evaluate the quality of the coaching process students receive when they are learning in a professional skills laboratory. A professional skills laboratory is a place where students receive skills training. For example, a professional skills laboratory may be a nursing skills laboratory, a dental skills laboratory, a medical laboratory skills laboratory, etc. The researchers wanted to know how much students learn in a professional skills laboratory. To answer this question, the researchers conducted a study to develop a scale that could be used to evaluate the quality of the coaching process that students receive in a professional skills laboratory.

The Process Evaluation Scale is composed of four subscales: the feeling subscale, the expectations subscale, the observation subscale, and the coaching subscale. The researchers found the Process Evaluation Scale a valid and reliable tool.

This study aimed to develop a valid and reliable scale to evaluate the coaching process during nursing students’ skill practice. The exploratory factor analysis was used to analyze the data collected from the study. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) coefficient of the scale was 0.96. According to the Barlett test, the p-value was 0.000. For reliability, the lowest and highest item-total correlation values were 0.493 and 0.769, respectively, and the Cronbach Alpha score was 0.962. It was found that the validity and reliability of the scale were high. The scale can be used in future studies to evaluate the coaching process during skill practice.

How to use the Process Evaluation Scale in coaching?

Evaluating the coaching process is important to assess the quality of coaching and its effectiveness. The coaching process is continuous, including several activities and steps. These include pre-coaching preparation, actual coaching, evaluation of the coaching process, and post-coaching follow-up. Coaching is one of the most effective ways of learning and improving skills. However, it requires specific skills and methods. The coach needs to be qualified to provide appropriate feedback and encouragement. A qualified coach can motivate and guide students to learn new skills and behaviors. In addition, the coach can evaluate the student’s progress in achieving the learning outcomes. Process of using evaluation scale in coaching:


Professional skills are important in health professions. Demonstration and skill lists are used to get skills. Real clinic scenarios, role-playing, video displays, simulations, and standardized patients are also used. Student experiences and the type of support received from the trainer are important in gaining skills. A coach is needed in order to carry out skill learning.

Coaching focuses on learning and development. It is defined as creating and increasing the coachee’s personal awareness of strengths and resources and encouraging lifelong learning and development by focusing on the future. A coach is a person who focuses on the student along with personal development in laboratory settings and who provides a safe environment for learning. A coach facilitates, encourages, and supports learning. The coachee can improve and shine, developing a sense of responsibility for learning objectives.

A study conducted with nursing students and lecturers providing skills training reported that training in professional skills laboratories became mechanical for both the students and lecturers because of psychomotor aspects. Students did not use critical thinking, and problem-solving skills in skills laboratories, did not want to spend time at the laboratory, and needed help transferring learned skills to practice. Coaches must be involved to encourage nursing students to gain critical thinking skills and follow the latest developments.

To educate students aware of personal development, they need to receive training in a safe learning environment, adequate support, and immediate feedback. Ensuring that every student receives support for their coaching skills should be evaluated. Measures related to coaching types, models, and areas where coaching is used exist, but there needs to be a measure for evaluating the coaching process during skill learning.

This study was to develop a valid and reliable scale for evaluating the coaching process that students receive during skill learning in nursing.


The current research was planned as both a cross-sectional and methodological study. Multiple steps were taken to generate the evaluation scale for the coaching process.

Step 1: Item generation and expert opinions

The literature about coaching practices for medical and nursing students can be found in item generation and expert opinions. An item pool consisting of 52 items was generated. There were questions for evaluating the coaching process listed using the item pool. 32 items were scored by a 5-point Likert-type scale and included in the preliminary scale. Expert opinions were taken to determine if the items in the preliminary scale were adequate for measuring the target behavior. A panel of 10 experts (one linguistic scientist and nine medical faculty members) reported their opinions on the preliminary scale’s wording, content, and suitability. Two items were removed from the scale, and a 30-item version was produced based on expert opinions.

Step 2: Pilot testing

30 nursing students were tested on the preliminary scale. Student opinions on the scale items, response time, and applicability were taken. Significant modifications were not necessary as a result of the pilot testing.

Step 3: Scale administration 

During October and December of 2015, the scale was administered. Skills training begins in the second year of nursing education, while in the second and third years of study, lecturers provide training using the demonstration method in a one-on-one or small-group format. The students in the second and third years of study were accepted as the study universe. The goal was to get a sample size at least ten times greater than the number of items. The students were invited to participate in the study after they were informed of the study. The students who volunteered to participate in the study were from the second and third years. A sample size of 15.2 times larger than the number of items was reached. Before data collection took place, oral informed consent was obtained from the participants. The students in each class were given a question form and allowed to answer it. The Ege University Faculty of Nursing Ethics Committee granted ethical permission to conduct the study.

Step 4: Psychometric analyses 

A large group of students completed the scale. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted for the validity of the test, and Cronbach alpha analysis was done for the scale’s reliability in psychometric analyses. The software that was used for statistical analysis was called SPSS.


Data on validity and reliability was obtained after administering the 30-item Coaching Process Evaluation Scale, which was generated according to expert opinions and pilot test results.

Step 1: Eigenvalue scree plot results

Eigenvalue coefficients are used to determine the number of important factors and calculate the amount of variance explained by factors. Factors with an eigenvalue equal to or greater than 1 are considered to be important in factor analysis. If scale items can be grouped under different dimensions, factor analysis is a procedure that can be conducted. In factor analysis, the goal is to represent a large number of items as a smaller number of factors. Some items are closely associated with each other that constitute factors, and each of these factors represents a theoretical construct underlying measurement. The first change in the eigenvalue plot slope happened in the 4th factor. It was decided that the scale could be made up of 4 factors. The choice of factors should be based on more than just the slope of the plot, as indicated by Tekin & Yaman. For accurate factor choice, principal components analysis using varimax rotation was conducted.

Step 2: Exploratory factor analysis

A criterion is provided by higher factor loadings of items grouped under factors. If a cluster of correlated items exists within a factor, they can be assumed to measure a concept-construct factor. The Kaiser- Meyer-Olkin (KMO) coefficients were used to test the suitability of data for factor analysis. The data is suitable for factor analysis if it is more than.60 and the test result is significant. The KMO coefficient was found to be 0.96 in the current study. According to the test results, the p-value was zero. 

None of the items were removed from the scale because each had a factor loading greater than. The factor analysis created a 30-item scale. The scales included four factors in the final version.

Step 3: Principal components analysis with Varimax rotation 

The 12 items in Factor 1 had factor loadings between.602 and.725, while the 11 items in Factor 2 had factor loadings between.721 and.776.

Step 4: Naming factors 

The factors were named according to their contents. Factor 1 was called “Utilization of the coaching process” because it was related to utilizing/benefiting from the coaching process. Observed coaching skills were named factor 2 because all items in factor 2 were about the coaching skills observed by students. Factor 3 was named Emotions because it was about students’ feelings during coaching practices. The items in Factor 4 are related to the coaching skills students are expected to learn. The evaluation scale consisted of 4 subscales.

Step 5: Reliability analysis 

Cronbach alpha analysis was carried out in order to test the reliability of the coaching process evaluation scale. It is acceptable for the reliability of scale scores if the Cronbach alpha coefficient is greater than 0.70 or higher. The Cronbach alpha coefficients of the total scale were found to be 0.96 in the present study. The scale is a reliable instrument, according to this finding. The Cronbach alpha coefficients of factors were found to be.94,94,94, and.80, respectively.

Step 6: Item total correlation analysis 

The Coaching Process Evaluation Scale had a total of 30 items and 4 subscales and was determined by statistical analyses. Subscale scores were calculated instead of a total score due to the fact that the score on the 30-item scale did not correspond to a theoretically meaningful interpretation. It was difficult to compare subscale scores because the number of items in each subscale needed to be equal. Subscale scores were standardized so that they could be used to facilitate comparisons. The score ranged from 0 to 100 on the subscale. The degree of satisfaction regarding the relevant subscale increases when the subscale scores are higher.

What are the benefits of using the Process Evaluation Scale in coaching?

It is important to evaluate the coaching process and your results. You should know what you have accomplished, what you have achieved, and what is left to achieve. This helps you to know where you are and where you want to go. The evaluation scale can be used to measure the changes and the impact of the coaching over time.  

It is important to measure your progress and know what is working. It is necessary to make sure that you are on track with your goals. If you have a coach who isn’t doing his job, you might not be on track with your goals. You need to check in with your coach to see if he is doing his job. You should talk to him if you are still working on your goals. He may need to change something to help you reach your goals. An evaluation scale is a tool that can be used to measure the expected changes and the impact of the coaching over time.

Examples of how to use the Process Evaluation Scale in coaching

PES is a tool used by coaches to assess the goal accomplishment of their clients. PES is a self-assessment tool. It is meant to be used by the coach and the client together. The coach will ask the client to rate their current achievement and aim for fulfillment on a scale of 1 to 10, with 10 being the highest. The client is expected to answer honestly. The coach will take note of the answers given by the client and will evaluate the client’s answers on the basis of the answers given. The coach will note the client’s answers and give him/her some feedback on what he/she can do to improve their level of performance.

What are the limitations of the Process Evaluation Scale?

The scale development process is needed to build human and social sciences knowledge. To provide a systematic review of the published literature regarding current practices of the scale development process, to assess the main limitations reported by the authors in these processes, and to provide a set of recommendations for best practices in future scale development research was the aim of the present paper. The papers were selected in September 2015, with the search terms “scale development” and “limitations” from three databases. There were 105 published studies between 1976 and 2015. 

The three basic steps to scale development are item generation, theoretical analysis, and psychometric analysis. The study identified sample characteristic limitations, methodological limitations, psychometric limitations, qualitative research limitations, missing data, social desirability bias, item limitations, the brevity of the scale, and difficulty controlling all variables. Several studies analyzed in this review clearly identified methodological weaknesses in the scale development process, but only a few researchers recognized and recorded them. We hope a systematic knowledge of the difficulties usually reported in scale development will help future researchers to recognize their own limitations and make the most appropriate choices among different conceptions and methodological strategies.


A process evaluation scale is a tool coaches use to evaluate the effectiveness of their coaching services. It is based on the assumption that a coach’s performance will be higher when a client achieves their goal. A coach evaluates a client’s progress using a scale of 1 to 10, 10 being the highest. The scale is divided into three components:

  • Client’s self-rated performance
  • Coach’s rating of the client’s performance
  • Goal achievement

The scale is designed to be easy for a coach to understand and use. The coach will be able to observe the client’s performance and use the scale to rate the client’s progress.

Frequently asked questions

null!– wp:rank-math/faq-block null –> nulldiv class=”wp-block-rank-math-faq-block”>nulldiv class=”rank-math-faq-item”>nullh3 class=”rank-math-question”>nullstrong>How do you further develop your coaching skills using the Process Evaluation Scale?null/strong>null/h3>nulldiv class=”rank-math-answer”>The process Evaluation Scale is a scale that coaches use to analyze their clients’ goal accomplishments. PES can be used to help your client reach their goals. A coach can ask your client to rate their current achievement and aim for fulfillment on a scale of 1 to 10, with 10 being the highest.null/div>null/div>nulldiv class=”rank-math-faq-item”>nullh3 class=”rank-math-question”>nullstrong>What are other coaching tools employed?null/strong>null/h3>nulldiv class=”rank-math-answer”>Various types of coaching skills are included:nullbr>1.Communicationnullbr>2.Listeningnullbr>3.A good judge of characternullbr>4.Managing timenullbr>5.nulla class=”wpil_keyword_link” href=”” target=”_blank” rel=”noopener” title=”Emotional intelligence” data-wpil-keyword-link=”linked”>Emotional intelligencenull/a>nullbr>6.Using open-ended questionsnullbr>7.Goal-settingnullbr>8.Collaborationnull/div>null/div>nulldiv class=”rank-math-faq-item”>nullh3 class=”rank-math-question”>nullstrong>What is the procedure for using a Process Evaluation Scale?null/strong>null/h3>nulldiv class=”rank-math-answer”>If your program is being implemented as expected, there is a process evaluation that tells you. Process evaluations can be used to see if the steps and assumptions in your theory of change hold up in practice.null/div>null/div>null/div> null!– /wp:rank-math/faq-block –>

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