The Definitive Guide for OSKAR Coaching Model [2021-22 Edition]

 Sai Blackbyrn/ 28th September 2021

Coaching models are one of the greatest tools for coaches. These models guide the coaching practice of the coaches. They make sure that the coaching style of the coach is aligned with their coaching philosophy.

There are many coaching models that a coach can choose from. One of such coaching models is the OSKAR coaching model. OSKAR coaching model is a solution-focused coaching model.

The OSKAR coaching model ensures that the coachee is clear on the expected outcomes. With a solution-focused mindset, the coach helps the coachee with the full knowledge and resources required to achieve the outcomes. OSKAR coaching model lays emphasis on affirmation, action, and review. It allows the coach to plan their coaching sessions by continuously directing their minds towards solutions.

Before we understand more about the OSKAR coaching model, a brief background of the coaching model is important. So, let’s first start by learning in brief about what is a coaching model and different types of coaching models.

What is a Coaching Model?

Coaching models provide a framework for the coaching process. There are many coaching models that guide the coaching of different coaches. Without a coaching model, it becomes difficult for coaches to plan their coaching approach.

Coaching models give the coaches a roadmap to execute their coaching sessions. Such models ensure that the coaching practice is in line with the coach’s coaching philosophy.

In the absence of a coaching model, it becomes difficult for the coach to remain on track. Coaching sessions may not be effective. As a result, the struggles of the coach may increase. A coach may find it challenging to achieve the client’s transformation.

Coaching models ensure that meaningful sessions take place. With a coaching model, a coach can be confident in their coaching strategies. Different coaching models have different meanings. For instance, the GROW coaching model focuses on setting clear goals whereas the OSKAR coaching model focuses more on solutions.

What coaching model a coach chooses determines the coaching style of the coach. The coaching style and approach of the coach greatly impact the coaching practice.

Different Types of Coaching Models

There are different coaching models. Each of them has there own meanings and approaches. As a coach, you must know in brief about each coaching model. Once you have an idea you can choose a coaching model that suits you the most. Knowing about all the coaching models also gives you a chance to lay a comparison and outline the pros and cons of each coaching model.

GROW coaching model

The GROW coaching model focuses on a goal-based approach. It includes setting clear goals and overcoming hurdles. It emphasizes discovering alternatives and choosing the best option. After the discovery of the best option, it leads to building an action plan to show the coachee the way forward. The following are the stages of the GROW coaching model.

Goal (G) – Setting a clear goal

Reality (R) – Preforming a reality check for the coachee. This involves a deep analysis of the current situation of the coachee.

Options (O) – Discovering the best options that can help the coachee to tackle the situation. The coach chooses the best amongst all the possible options so that the client can achieve their goals.

Way Forward (W) – The coach now builds an action plan to guide the coachee to attain transformation.

Read more about the GROW coaching model to understand better.

OSKAR coaching model

OSKAR coaching model
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OSKAR coaching model focus on a solution-based approach. The following are the stages of the OSKAR model.

Outcome (O) – In the beginning, the coach focuses to identify the outcomes that the client wants to achieve.

Scaling (S) – After the coach understands what the client wants to achieve, they use the scaling technique. Here the coach asks the client to rank themselves on a scale from 1-10 as per their goals. This helps the coach to identify the current situation of the clients with respect to their goals.

Know-How (K) – At this stage, the coach helps the client to gain knowledge and resources. This helps the client to move closer to their goals.

Affirm and action (A) – At this stage, the coach motivates the clients by providing positive feedback.

Review (R) – At this stage, the coach reviews the process and identifies the need for changes if required.

CLEAR coaching model

Clear coaching model is another famous coaching model. It includes the following stages.

Contracting (C) – At this stage, the coach opens up the discussion to understand what are the goals and aspirations of the client.

Listening (L) – The coach listenes actively to find the pain points of the client. This helps in understanding the situation of the client better.

Exploring (E) – At this stage, the coach explores the options and possibilities.

Action (A) – The coach builds an action plan to help the coachee attain their goals and become successful.

Review (R) – The coach reviews the coaching process and decides the needs for change if any.

Shift coaching model

The shift coaching model is used to bring a shift in thinking. This coaching model helps clients that can’t understand why they are unable to achieve their targets. The Shift coaching model focuses on bringing a shift in the thinking pattern of the clients.

Block removal coaching model

Sometimes clients meet continuous failures no matter how hard they try. Their motivation and confidence become very low. Limiting beliefs or hidden fear escalates the situation. At this time, the block-removing coaching model works best to coach clients to success.

Coaching models are different than coaching business models. You can read about different coaching business models to better understand them.

I am sure that till now you must have got an idea about different coaching models.

Now let’s have an in-depth look at one of my favorite coaching models – OSKAR.

Oskar Coaching Model – A Solution-Focused Approach

Mark McKergow and Paul Z. Jackson developed the OSKAR coaching model. A coach can use the OSKAR coaching model to concentrate more on the solutions than the problems. Coaches use the OSKAR coaching model to deal with specific performance or behavioral problems.

There are different stages of the OSKAR coaching model. We have already discussed these stages in the brief above. Now let’s understand the different stages in deep.

O – Outcome

What does your coachee want to achieve?

This includes both short-term and long-term outcomes. Outcomes here can also be equated to objectives.

At this stage, the coach helps the coachee to identify their main objectives and outcomes. By asking coaching questions, the coach tries to bring clarity to the thoughts and understanding of the coachee. The list of outcomes may include the expected outcomes at the end of the coaching process. It may also include expected outcomes at the end of the coaching session.

The main focus of the coach is to help the coachee to understand the “future perfect” scenario. The coach encourages the coachee to think out-of-the-box. The coach asks hypothetical and miracle questions. This helps the coachee to discover the true transformation that they wish to achieve.

S – Scale

OSKAR coaching model
Photo by Markus Spiske on Unsplash

By now the coachee is clear about the outcomes. Next comes the Scale stage. Here the coach asks the client to rate themselves on a scale of 1-10. This rating clarifies where does the coachee stands currently in relation to their expected outcomes.

By rating, the coach can understand how much the client is aware of their present situations. It also helps the coach to understand what level of self-awareness does the coachee has.

Many clients directly reply with a “10” when they are asked to rate themselves. As a coach, you must take care that the client is honest enough. This requires frequent coaching sessions to understand the clients. In this way, a coach can learn about the strengths and weaknesses of the coachee.

While rating, you must also ask the coachee the reason for the number that they rate themselves with. Discussions around the same may end up the coachee giving a different rating. The goal of this stage is to make the coachee fully aware of themselves and their current situations.

K- Know-How

This stage concentrates on building a knowledge bank for the coachee. The coach provides necessary resources to the coachee so that they can excel. The coach helps the coachee to develop the skills, knowledge, and behavior that will help them to attain transformation.

At this stage, the coach takes help from the coachee’s environment and past experience. The coach provides options to the coachee reminding them of their past actions.

The coach makes the coachee realize about the different people that surround the situations. The coachee tries to find out who all can help them and in what ways.

The purpose of this stage is to build knowledge of the coachee. After this scale test is again used to determine how far the coachee has reached. The coach then plans out what all resources the coachee needs to perform better on the scale test.

A – Affirm & Action

OSKAR coaching model
Photo by Wokandapix on Pixabay

At this stage, the coach motivates the coachee by providing positive feedback. The coach appreciates the previously takes actions and opinions of the coachee. This helps the coachee to build trust in themselves. The coach appreciates the coachee for the knowledge and attributes that they have.

After this, the coach builds an action plan for the coachee. The coach provides clear action steps and direction to the coachee. This helps the coachee to get on cracking. The coach encourages the coachee to take small actions and provides full support.

R – Review

At this stage, the coachee reviews the coaching process and performance of the coachee. The coach takes feedback from the coachee to measure their level of satisfaction. Both the client and coachee discuss the parameters that have been improved. Along with this, the discussion also happens around what needs to be improved next. Review generally happens at the beginning of every coaching session. After such a review, the coach can better direct the coaching session according to the review.

The OSKAR coaching model template will help you.

Oskar Coaching Model – Coaching Questions

At each stage of the OSKAR coaching model, a coach requires different coaching questions. Such coaching questions can help the coach to understand the coachee and process better at every stage.

So, now let’s look at different coaching questions that a coach must ask depending on the state.


A coach can ask the following coaching questions at the Outcome stage of the coaching model.

  • What is your long-term goal?
  • What does success look like to you?
  • What is the ideal transformation that you wish to achieve?
  • Which of the outcomes would you like to achieve at the earliest?
  • How important it is to achieve the outcome for you?
  • What will be the consequences if you don’t achieve the outcome?
  • How do you think the outcomes can impact your current situation?
  • What if you do not achieve the outcome? What impact will it have on your family? How will it impact your business?
  • Why do you think that a particular outcome is required?
  • Within what period of time will you want to achieve the outcome?


  • On a scale of 0 to 10, with 10 representing the best and 0 the worst, where are you on that scale today?
  • Why did you rate this way?
  • What do you think is stopping you from choosing a better number?
  • How is the main issue impacting you?
  • How is it impacting others?
  • What parameters do you think are needed so that you can perform better on the scale test?
  • What are the resources that you think you are lacking?
  • What if the limitations are eliminated? How will you rate yourself?
  • Do you think that you are honest in the scale test? How can you prove it?


  • What skills do you have to deal with the present situation?
  • What skills, resources, etc. do you think are lacking at the moment?
  • If the limitations are eliminated, how soon would you be able to achieve the outcomes?
  • What advice will you give to someone else in this situation?
  • Who do you think can help in the current situation?
  • What is stopping you to take help from them?
  • Have you done/seen something similar before?
  • What would others say is working for you?

Affirm and Action

  • What actions are you going to take to move forward?
  • How do you think your skills and experience help you while executing the action plan?
  • When will you take the actions?
  • What support do you think you need while taking the action steps?
  • Where will you find that support from?
  • How will you approach me if you need any help?
  • In what ways do you think I can help you?
  • How will you maintain your confidence and motivation?
  • On a scale of 1-10 how committed you are to take the actions?
  • What would be the first step?
  • What are you planning to do next?
  • How will you make sure that your actions are productive?
  • How will you measure your success?


  • What do you think has changed?
  • What factors have improved?
  • What do you think has reduced your potential?
  • Do you think it is the right time for a review?
  • Do you feel that the action plan is in tune with the expected outcomes?
  • Are you finding it difficult to execute the action steps?
  • Do you think that a change is required in our approach?
  • On a scale of 1-10, how easy do you find to execute the action steps?
  • What did you do to make the change successful?
  • What else do you think could have been done?
  • What are you planning to change next? How?
  • When do you think would it be the right time to review your performance next?

Strengths and Weakness of the OSKAR Coaching Model

Every coaching model has a limitation. So, does the OSKAR coaching model. Before choosing the OSKAR coaching model ensure that you are aware of its pros and cons.

Benefits of OSKAR coaching model

Collaborative approach

The solution-focused mindset encourages a collaborative approach. The model makes sure that the coach and client are working together to achieve the expected outcomes.

Emphasis on progress and positive achievement

OSKAR coaching model
Photo by mohamed_hassan on Pixabay

The Scale and Affirm stages focus more on progress and positive achievement. This can be much more motivating them simply highlighting a problem that needs a solution. OSKAR coaching model concentrates on motivating the coachee. It focus on continuously improved performance with proper measure and review. This at times adds to the motivation and encouragement to a great extent.

Focus on small achievements

OSKAR coaching model focus on small achievements. This helps the coachee to break large problems and challenges into small chunks. Solving each of the small problems leads the coachee one step closer to the expected outcomes.

Weaknesses of the OSKAR coaching model

When the coaches focus too much on the affirm element

If coaches lay too much focus on the affirm element it can drive the attention away from the solutions. Affirmation is good but not to the extent that it makes the coachee overconfident. Focusing too much on the positive aspects can rescue efforts on the negative ones.

Difficulty to maintain the balance of dialogue

OSKAR coaching model primarily depends on the outcome. If the outcomes aren’t clear in the beginning the process ahead will get disturbed. It is important that proper communication is built to ensure that the coach and the client are on the same pace.

How is the OSKAR Coaching Model Different From Other Coaching Models?

OSKAR coaching model is different from other coaching models like the GROW coaching model. Some of such differences are mentioned below.

  • It specifically uses the solution-focused approach. This allows coaches and managers to experience the power of a solution-focused approach in actions.
  • It specifically allows the sharing of know-how from other people. Even the coach is asked to share the knowledge in addition to the normal coaching questions.
  • It focuses on affirming and small actions. This approach is really powerful compared to the one which focuses on bursting the barriers and achieving everything at once.
  • It specifically engages the coachee and the client to look for “what’s better”.
  • The entire OSKAR coaching model can be thought of as a tool rather than a process. Not every element needs to be used every time. This can largely help busy coaches/managers who are looking for short effective conversations.

Where can you use the OSKAR coaching model?

You can use the OSKAR coaching model in different settings.

Team Coaching

Team coaching requires a lot of effort to ensure that all the members are together. A coach can use the OSKAR coaching model to resolve conflicts and elevate the team spirit of the teams. Clear outcomes and constant review can help the team to excel.

Workplace Coaching

OSKAR coaching model
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Workplace coaches use the OSKAR coaching model to manage employees in workplaces. Positive affirmations and focus on progress help the coaches to build an effective coaching process. With a solution-focused mindset, employees can win difficult situations. It also helps in minimizing the conflicts and connecting everyone to a common goal.

Life Coaching

OSKAR coaching model helps the coachee to live their life to the fullest. It does so by making them realize that every problem has a solution. By having proper knowledge of oneself and the surroundings we can improve in our relationships and see a better self.

Career Coaching

OSKAR coaching model can help clients that are struggling with their career. A solution-focused approach helps the clients to continue “digging for the gold”. The scale test helps the clients to witness an improved version of themselves. Continuously striving for the expected outcomes ensures that they achieve the success that they deserve.

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